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The lands of Turkey are located at a point where the three continents making up the old world, Asia, Africa and Europe are closest to each other. Turkey is situated on an area where Europe meets Asia, creating a link between these two continents. The European part of the country is called Thrace, while the Asian part is known as Anatolia (or Asia Minor). It is bordered to the northwest by Greece and Bulgaria, to the east by the former USSR (Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaican Republics) and Iran, and to the south by Iraq and Syria. The Turkish peninsula is bathed by four seas: the Mediterranean to the south, the Aegean to the west, the Sea of Marmara between the European and Asian land masses, and the Black Sea to the north. The entire coastline spans more than 8,000 kilometers (approximately 5,000 miles) in length. Because of its geographical location the mainland of Anatolia has always found favour throughout history, and is the birthplace of many great civilizations. It has also been prominent as a center of commerce because of its land connections to three continents and the sea surrounding it on three sides.

 

Agri Mountain:

Rising at the borders of Turkey and Iran, Mount Agri, an inactive volcano capped year round with ice and snow, rises to 5137 meters. The Old Testament records that it was on this mountain that Noah’s Ark came to rest after the great flood. Southwest of the mountain, the Little Mount Agri (Ararat) reaches up to 3896 meters; the Serdarbulak lava plateau (2600 m) stretches out between the two pinnacles. Climbing the spectacular Agri is a challenging and rewarding experience. 

The top of Ararat is covered with a large cap glacier and many valley glaciers run from the top. The worlds attention has been drawn have due to Noah’s history. In the south near a village theri is a long fossil which is supposed to belong to Noah’s Ark because of similarity, according to some archologists studiying this subject.

 

In the summer, the weather in the area and on Mount Agri is sunny, warm and dry. However, in the winter and spring, cold and harsh conditions prevail, and mountain climbers occasionally face blizzards and turbulent weather. July, August, and September are the months when most world mountain climbers come to the area. Climbing up Agri is most enjoyable during this period. However, despite the usual sunny and clear weather at that time of year, high altitude mountain weather swirls around above 3000 meters. The southern side of the mountain offers the easiest and safest climb to the summit. With this route one has access to the best route communication and transportation facilities and it is safe. It is not recommended to climb Mount Agri alone and without a guide.

 

 

Van Lake:

 

Turkish VAN GÖLÜ, lake, largest body of water in Turkey and the second largest in the Middle East. The lake is located in the region of eastern Anatolia near the border of Iran. It covers an area of 1,434 square miles (3,713 square km) and is more than 74 miles (119 km) across at its widest point. Known to the ancient Greek geographers as Thospitis Lacus, or Arsissa Lacus, its modern Turkish name, Van Gölü, is derived from Van, or Chauon, the name of the capital of the Urartian kingdom that flourished on the lake’s eastern shore between the 10th and 8th centuries BC. Roughly triangular in shape, the lake lies in an enclosed basin; its brackish waters are unsuitable for either drinking or irrigation. The salt water allows for no animal life save the darekh (related to the European bleak, a small soft-finned river fish of the carp family), a freshwater fish that has adapted to a saline environment.

 

 

White Narcissus:

There are more than 10,000 species of plants in Turkey, 20% of which are found only in these lands. The abundant rainfall in the Black Sea region allows the growth of rich forest vegetation.

The coasts of the Aegean and the Mediterranean, from the Canakkale Strait to the Gulf of Iskenderun, have typically Mediterranean vegetation which extends to the plains and western slopes of mountains as high as 1000 metres. The southern coast has very hot and dry summers and the vegetation in some places is subtropical with banana trees and date palms. In the Taurus Mountains, the vegetation consists of pine and cedar forests, with even junipers at higher altitudes.

Central and eastern Anatolia are isolated from all maritime influence by mountains. Rainfall is low, the summers hot and dry and the winters harsh. In certain areas, the vegetation is steppe-like but also with forests of pine, oak and beech. The region around the Salt Lake is almost entirely barren. The climate in eastern Turkey is even harsher, although the rainfall in the Southeast allows birches, walnuts and oaks to thrive.

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